Muscle mass is a slightly different beast. So I'll drop some rules. Bulk is putting on muscle while gaining some fat, cut is losing fat while maintaining muscle.
The max muscle you can gain from lifting is 25lbs first year, 15lbs second year, 10lbs third year. Free of steroids of course. That means anything more than 2lbs of mass gained a month in the first year will mostly be fat, so you only need about 7500 bonus calories over the course of a month + whatever extra energy you use in the workouts. This is where gallon of milk a day on /fit/ is a meme, it just makes you fat. Musculature is almost entirely dependant on your bodyfat, If you're higher than 20% body fat it will make it insanely difficult to A) See results and B) your body will be more likely to turn excess calories to fat rather than muscle.
If you want a 6pack you have to get to 10% bodyfat, my personal suggestion is initially cut to 15% bodyfat, then bulk for a few (12?) weeks, then cut to 10%, and bulk and cut between 10-15%. You'll look good year round.
Second rep ranges adjust how your body reacts to weightlifting. Changing your reps and sets changes if you build mass, strength or endurance.
1-5 Reps: Strength
6-12 Reps: Hypertrophy
Meaning if you do 20 push ups or 100 sit ups you're not building muscle, likewise if you're doing starting strength you're barely building muscle. (Right on the edge) SS is also a meme if you want to build an asthetic muscular body.
Finally 0.7g-1g of protein per lbs of bodyweight every day. If you're 200lbs, that's 140g-200g of protein. Don't work out on consecutive days, don't work out the same muscle group more than once every 4. (This allows CNS to recover letting you lift more) Eat +400 calories to start each day, if you're gaining less than 0.6 lbs a week up it. More than 1 lbs drop calories a bit.
My personal workout cycle, focuses on looking damn sexy, while building useful strength (example Incline bench boosts punch strength more than reg bench). Also quick af in gym, 50 mins or so with some warm up. Gives you Brad Pitt Troy/Fight Club physique.Post too long. Click here to view the full text.